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Polymersomes biomimétiques : conception et application en nanomédecine

Sébastien Lecommandoux, LCPO, Bordeaux

par Salmon Jean-Baptiste - publié le , mis à jour le

We report an overview on the self-assembly in water of amphiphilic block copolymers
into polymersomes, and their applications in loading and controlled release of both hydrophilic
and hydrophobic molecules and biomolecules. We pay special attention to polysaccharide and
polypeptide-based block copolymer vesicles that we have studied these recent years in our
group. These newly developed copolymers that mimic the structure and function of glycoproteins
represent an example of the effectiveness of a biomimetic strategy in implementing materials
design. In addition, magnetic polymersomes, including iron oxide γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles are currently
investigated, together with their potential applications as contrast agent for imaging and as therapeutic
nanoparticles using hyperthermia. Exciting and very promising results about their therapeutic
evaluation for tumor targeting and in vivo tumor regression studies will be presented.

Finally our recent advances in using “biomimicry approaches” to design complex,
compartmentalized materials will be proposed. We demonstrate the formation of compartmentalized
polymersomes with an internal « gelly » cavity using an original and versatile emulsion-centrifugation
process. Such a system constitutes a first step towards the challenge of structural cell mimicry
with both “organelles” and “cytoplasm mimics”. This study constitutes major progress in the field of
structural biomimicry and will certainly enable the rise of new, highly interesting properties in the field
of high-added value soft matter, especially in controlled cascade (bio)reactions